This is a rush transcript. Copy may not be in its final kind.

AMY GOODMAN: We start out today’s show suitable in this article in New York, exactly where law enforcement have arrested a man in link with Tuesday’s subway capturing. Sixty-two-12 months-old Frank James was apprehended immediately after he himself termed the city’s Crime Stoppers line and instructed them he was at a Manhattan McDonald’s. Also, it was after bystanders explained they observed James on the avenue and alerted officers.

This is Zack Tahhan, a 21-year-outdated Syrian immigrant, and his cousin, Mo Cheikh. He reported they ended up restoring a digicam process at a components keep when they spotted James.

ZACK TAHHAN: I see the law enforcement automobile, police. We tell him, “This is the male, about — this is the person. He did the problem in the Brooklyn.”

MO CHEIKH: When we observed this dude, we have been like amongst 70 to 80% guaranteed: Is it him? Is it not? So we pull up the photo, the amber notify on our telephones. We noticed the photo. We noticed. We verified that, in between the three of us, “Oh, that is the man. That’s him. A hundred % confident, that’s him.”

AMY GOODMAN: Police accuse Frank James of shooting 10 travellers on a subway auto in Brooklyn. At the very least 13 other folks were being hurt in the assault, which started immediately after the gunman produced two smoke grenades in a crowded teach in the course of morning rush hour on Tuesday. He’s getting billed in federal courtroom with violating a law in opposition to terrorist and other violent attacks on mass transit. He faces everyday living in prison.

A motive behind the shooting is nonetheless unidentified. James had a YouTube channel where he posted videos railing about racism, violence and his struggles with psychological illness, like what he named the “horror show” of New York City’s mental health providers. YouTube has since taken down the channel. This is a clip of Frank James in a put up from when he explained he was heading to New York.

FRANK JAMES: I’m heading again into the hazard zone, so to communicate, you know, and it is triggering a great deal of adverse views, of training course, mainly because I do suffer, have a undesirable intense scenario of submit-traumatic pressure right after the [bleep] I have been by way of [bleep] years, gentleman.

AMY GOODMAN: Frank James also lashed out at New York Metropolis Mayor Eric Adams in his video clips. Just after Tuesday’s attack, Adams vowed to deploy additional law enforcement patrols and grow mental well being outreach applications to overcome violence. This is Mayor Adams speaking on NY1.

MAYOR ERIC ADAMS: Initial of all, staying offended does not give you the proper to enter our subway method, discharge 33 rounds, striking 10 folks, injuring 16 because of your actions. You don’t have that appropriate. And I am not likely to succumb to any individual who feel they can attempt to hurt New Yorkers since they are indignant. The failure of all those with psychological wellbeing, homelessness, the failure of our instructional method did not start off January 2022. We have abandoned and betrayed New Yorkers for yrs. That betrayal is likely to halt. And I’m dedicated to accomplishing so.

AMY GOODMAN: For much more, we’re joined by Andrew Solomon, professor of scientific healthcare psychology at Columbia College, award-winning writer of many guides on psychological health issues, together with Far from the Tree: Parents, Children, and the Look for for Id and his widely acclaimed memoir, The Noonday Demon: An Atlas of Melancholy.

Professor Solomon, if you could get started off by conversing about your takeaway from the horror that took place around the very last two times, but also these films that were posted by the suspect, who continuously talked about the mental health and fitness hell that he confronted?

ANDREW SOLOMON: I believe it’s difficult to make a very clear diagnosis of the perpetrator of these horrific crimes on the foundation of what he’s place ahead, but he says that he’s been in the mental health procedure and has encounter of it. There is no problem that you have to be at the very least unhinged to undertake the type of attack that he did and that what he has done represents a lapse in psychological wellness.

The misfortune is that we appear to be to chat about mental health and fitness as although it were a make any difference of safeguarding harmless subway riders, which it is, and not as though it ended up a matter of assuaging the acute struggling of folks who have delusions or hallucinations or an unclear grasp of actuality, which it also is.

NERMEEN SHAIKH: Andrew, could you communicate especially about what the troubles are of folks accessing psychological health care, in general, in New York City?

ANDREW SOLOMON: Access to psychological health care in New York Metropolis is definitely disgraceful. There have been big institutions that were being closed down in the 1970s and the 1980s. Those people institutions were being horrific. The very best recognised is Willowbrook. And people noticed the appalling footage that was taken in Willowbrook that showed people today chained to beds and sitting in their possess excrement, and so on and so forth. But what was agreed was that people huge institutions would be shut down, and in their location there would be community care. The local community care was hardly ever recognized.

And so now we have hospitals for individuals in a point out of extraordinary disease, and you have to go and look at oneself in, unless you can be held to be a hurt to by yourself or to some others. And primarily, what people hospitals do is warehouse individuals so that they aren’t out on the streets dealing with these issues. But they warehouse people quite briefly. They are effective at protecting against individuals from dying by suicide, because the usually means to do so are confiscated. There’s quite small therapy. And what does not appear to be to exist at all are enough plans to acquire men and women who have been in hospitals, and reintegrate them in the common community.

NERMEEN SHAIKH: And also, Andrew, what are the communities that are most vulnerable to psychological disease and who have the most difficult time accessing treatment? You’ve talked about, even in your most recent piece in The New Yorker, “The Mystifying Increase of Little one Suicide” — you’ve spoken of how difficult it generally is even for the most affluent to access enough mental health care.

ANDREW SOLOMON: Nicely, it undoubtedly is complicated to sufficiently get healthcare for young children, which is what I was writing about. It’s extremely tricky to get mental health care for children. But this kind of treatment as exists tends to go to folks who are privileged, not only economically but also in training, and who know how to argue with medical doctors who really do not want to take their small children in, and who know whom to contact to get the finest conventional of psychological health and fitness. The quality of psychological health care for people in poverty, and especially for folks of shade, has been terrible. Agent Bonnie Watson Coleman, a main member of the Congressional Black Caucus, released the Pursuing Mental Wellness Equity Act of 2020, which was supposed to improve Black entry to psychological health and fitness providers across the state. It’s stalled in committee.

AMY GOODMAN: I needed to browse the starting of a piece from The Everyday Beast, which says, “The guy sought by the NYPD in Tuesday’s subway shooting recorded a video concept to Mayor [Eric] Adams in which he said he had been by way of the city’s mental-wellbeing program and seasoned a kind of emotional violence that would make someone [quote] ‘go and get a gun and shoot [MFers].’” I necessarily mean, he claimed the complete words. If you can discuss about what this indicates and what wants to come about now, Dr. Solomon, and specially when we appear not only below in New York but throughout the state as we — I never even know if we can say arrive out of this pandemic, but what is transpired in the past few a long time?

ANDREW SOLOMON: Effectively, what is took place in the previous number of yrs has exacerbated fundamental complications of mental overall health, and it is performed so as a result of a range of mechanisms. The principal a person, of study course, has been people acquiring unwell and dying. The secondary 1 has been the isolation in which men and women have been functioning, and, along with that isolation, the compelled intimacy with the folks with whom they have sheltered or quarantined through the pandemic. There is a perception of instability in the planet, which is to do with the pandemic and Black Life Make any difference and Ukraine and plenty of other matters likely on. All of these kinds of instability are probable to exacerbate fundamental psychological wellbeing circumstances. Several psychological health complications end result from the conjunction of an underlying vulnerability to mental health and fitness issues and external conditions that induce those people complications. That does not clarify everything, but it explains lots of of these difficulties.

And at the moment, the stimuli are great, and psychological wellness products and services keep on being out there only to a relatively tiny elite. If not, you have these establishments that, as I reported, are truly cruel areas. I imply, anyone who is an professional in this discipline and was at the National Institute of Psychological Health and fitness reported, “The worst location you can go if you’re emotion suicidal is a general public mental wellness facility. It will force you the relaxation of the way toward that sensation.” And, of course, suicide and homicide are carefully relevant. And usually persons who commit murder are expressing their have despair, their personal internal mental wellness complications, as well as expressing anger and hatred and bias.

NERMEEN SHAIKH: Andrew, could you clarify what we know about — you gestured at this in your response correct now — about what results in psychological illness, and in particular significant mental health issues, to what extent environmental aspects are liable, and to what extent unavoidable biological or chemical components are?

ANDREW SOLOMON: Pretty much everybody has some diploma of organic vulnerability to psychological sickness. And the problem is whether or not it is a minimal threshold, in which they are extremely vulnerable to psychological ailment, in which circumstance the triggering exterior conditions can be pretty trivial, or no matter if it is a person who is terrifically prone to psychological ailment, in which case the triggering factors have to be monumental. But practically always it’s a outcome of a conjunction concerning external stimuli and interior vulnerability. That being claimed, there are some persons who are just chemically or bodily or biologically programmed, it would look, to mental ailment. We really do not but realize the mechanisms of that programming, but we know that it exists.

NERMEEN SHAIKH: And what are some of the misconceptions about folks who are mentally unwell? I suggest, the Coalition [for] the Homeless has located that the huge the greater part of people, at the very least in this city, in New York City, have some variety of mental ailment. And authorities say that instead than what persons concern, that people who are mentally ill are far more possible to be vulnerable to violence, that, in point, in accordance to this coalition and gurus, homeless individuals who are mentally unwell are much more most likely to be matter to violence.

ANDREW SOLOMON: Only involving 3 and 4% of violent crime in the United States is dedicated by folks who are struggling from mental health issues. It’s a extremely tiny proportion, in general, of criminal offense. But folks with psychological health issues are extra probable to commit crimes that look unusual and inexplicable to onlookers, for the reason that they’re frequently guided by delusions alternatively than by greed or avarice or rage or any of the other characteristics that encourage the relaxation of violent crime.

To take care of people who are mentally sick as criminals ahead of the time that they essentially do something would be a gross injustice. Most mentally unwell people will never ever commit a crime, no subject what the mental sickness is that they have. But there are some persons with mental sickness who do commit crimes. And a large amount of them would not dedicate those people crimes if they had been acquiring enough supports for their ailment, if they had been currently being treated as the Us residents with Disabilities Act expected, if they have been becoming taken care of for the disease and have been getting addressed as disabled people today and seasoned the legal rights and privileges that go alongside with disability, as properly as the liberation that has existed in the disability rights movement.

AMY GOODMAN: Andrew Solomon, I preferred to talk to you about the clearing of homeless encampments right here in New York City and across the country. Do you see mental illness currently being remodeled into a felony problem, as something to be dealt with by law enforcement? And, for case in point, immediately after, of study course, this, the pure response just after this assault is to say the dollars is just heading to pour into police departments across the region. Your response to this?

ANDREW SOLOMON: Very well, in the first area, I believe it is vital that someone be out there having to pay interest to what men and women are publishing on YouTube. There was a large amount of evidence that this male was heading to be associated in one thing troubling, and nobody was shelling out awareness, and nobody did something.

On a more substantial scale, I believe criminalizing the mentally ill since some mentally unwell folks dedicate crimes is not so much away from criminalizing customers of racial minorities since some men and women who are in racial minorities commit crime, or people in any other class that you would treatment to title.

I feel our key focus has to be on assisting persons with psychological illness purpose, and supplying context for them — do the job context, supportive context, professional medical context, ongoing contexts — in which they could be served to perform as perfectly as they would like to operate, relatively than abandoning them right up until a thing like this comes about.

You know, there is an upsurge in calls for psychological wellness products and services just about every time there’s a major random criminal offense, each time there’s a college shooting, every single time there’s what appears to be a group suicide. Just about every time any of the relaxation of these points happen, there are individuals stating, “We have to have improved mental health providers.” Perfectly, we do have to have superior psychological wellbeing products and services, but these just cannot be furnished by the law enforcement. At the second, the establishment in the United States housing the largest range of mentally ill people today is the correctional procedure of the point out of California. Does that seriously seem like an proper placing for these men and women?

And the treatment of them, nevertheless it would have some complexity and some expenditure, would final result in a perception not only of superior public safety but of men and women moving into the performing overall economy and the performing environment who are at the moment marginal to it. So, dealing with these men and women makes sense not only or not largely from a general public protection standpoint, but it can make perception in conditions of having a functional technique in a practical place in which persons are equipped to contribute what they have to lead.

AMY GOODMAN: Very swiftly, we really do not want to end prior to addressing the piece you wrote in The New Yorker, “The Mystifying Increase of Youngster Suicide.” Just summarize it for us.

ANDREW SOLOMON: The age of suicide has been steadily coming down for the very last at least 15 yrs, and in all probability for substantially extended. And the rate of suicide amid young men and women has been likely up. And it was vastly exacerbated by the pandemic. The number of suicide attempts among adolescents was about double in 2020 what it was in 2019.

I talked to a variety of people who experienced missing little ones to suicide. The rate is heading up most fast among the Black children. There’s a good maximize likely on there. The stories are determined and heartbreaking. There was a single story that I came throughout of a female who was 5 years old and who hanged herself with her bounce rope, leaving driving a note that explained, “I am sad for what I do.”

What has occurred to our society that little ones are ready to conceptualize suicide? But what, far more significantly, has took place that has authorized them to be successful in attempting to stick to as a result of with it? And a good deal of what is happened is obtain to signifies. We have much more guns, but we also have additional films online that will present you how to get rid of on your own if you want to. When I was 5, I would not have regarded how to tie a noose or how to dangle myself.

And due to the fact we have a romanticized vision of childhood, we persistently propose that youngsters can’t actually get to the issue of suicide, that young children really do not definitely do these factors. But they do, and they do in better figures. And though the figures have gone up for prepubertive kids, they’ve skyrocketed for adolescents, in which the issue is really an acute and consistent one particular.

AMY GOODMAN: Andrew Solomon, we want to thank you for currently being with us, professor of medical health-related psychology at Columbia University, writer of quite a few books on psychological ailment, which includes Significantly from the Tree: Parents, Small children, and the Research for Identity and The Noonday Demon: An Atlas of Despair. We’ll link to your piece in The New Yorker, “The Mystifying Rise of Little one Suicide.”

Following up, we glance at Finland and Sweden. They are thinking of becoming a member of NATO, a go unthinkable to numerous in advance of Russia invaded Ukraine. We’ll converse with a top Swedish peace activist. Remain with us.